Your 1-year-old will most likely start responding to simple requests, shaking his head no, and waving goodbye. Other developmental milestones that a 1-year-old may reach include:
- shy with strangers
- play peekaboo
- copy your gesture
This age is also when the baby is checked and vaccinated. This article reviews which vaccines your 1-year-old will get, how to comfort them during and after vaccinations, and how to ease minor side effects.
1 year old vaccination schedule
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a vaccine schedule to prevent disease of all ages. Your 1-year-old will likely have been vaccinated several times as part of this plan.
Alternative Names for Vaccines
Alternative names for vaccination include:
- injection or injection
The CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the following vaccines for children 12-15 months old. They are usually done during a 1-year health check.
Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)
Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) is a type of bacteria. It is rare in the United States due to routine vaccination. However, it can be serious and can cause:
- pneumonia (lung infection)
- meningitis (spinal cord and brain infections)
- sepsis (infection that gets into the bloodstream)
- Epiglottitis (swelling of the upper airway or windpipe)
The fourth and final dose of Hib vaccine is usually given at 12-15 months of age.
Hib is different from seasonal flu
Hib is often confused with seasonal flu (flu), which is understandable given their similar names. However, these are two different diseases. Seasonal flu is a virus, while Hib is a bacteria.
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)
pneumococcus A disease is a bacterial infection that causes:
- ear infection
- sinus infection
- Meningitis (brain and spinal cord infection)
- pneumonia (lung infection)
PCV is part of a four-dose series. The last time was given at 12 to 15 months of age.
Hepatitis A (HepA)
Hepatitis A virus is a highly contagious disease that causes inflammation (swelling) and infection of the liver. Unvaccinated people become infected through close contact with an infected person or by eating contaminated food and drink.
Although hepatitis A is highly contagious, it can be prevented by giving children 1 year and older the hepatitis A vaccine (HAV).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two different hepatitis A vaccines for use in children:
- Havrix, approved in 1995
- Vaqta approved in 1996
Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR)
Children 12-15 months old receive their first dose of MMR vaccine. It can prevent the following diseases:
- Measles: This is a highly contagious virus that is spread by coughing and sneezing. People with measles experience cough, red eyes, fever, and a runny nose. A rash with small red spots starts around the head and spreads to the rest of the body. Before the measles vaccine was introduced in 1963, between 3 and 4 million Americans were diagnosed with measles each year.
- Mumps: This virus can cause fever, headache and muscle aches, loss of appetite, swollen glands under the ears, sore jaw and puffy cheeks. Most people recover from mumps within a few weeks. However, it can lead to serious complications, including encephalitis (swelling of the brain) and deafness. Vaccines have helped reduce mumps cases in the U.S. by more than 99%.
- rubella: This is a virus sometimes called “German measles”. Rubella can cause fever, swollen glands, respiratory infections, and rashes.
Rubella during pregnancy
It is important that women get the rubella vaccine before pregnancy. Rubella in pregnant women can cause miscarriage or serious birth defects.
chicken pox is a virus commonly known as chickenpox. It is a member of the herpes virus group. Chickenpox is caused when a person is first infected with chickenpox. Once it enters the body, it can be reactivated later in life. This causes a painful rash called shingles or shingles.
The first chickenpox vaccination is given at 12-15 months of age, and booster vaccines should be given around 4-6 years of age. Healthcare providers can give it a younger age as long as it has been three months since the last dose.
The flu is a respiratory infection that most people call the flu or seasonal flu. The first vaccination can start after the baby is 6 months old. Children under 9 years old who get their first flu vaccine usually get two doses at least 4 weeks apart.
After the initial vaccination, the flu vaccine should be given annually during the flu season, usually from October to May. It is best to get vaccinated early in the season. The vaccine takes about two weeks to build immunity to the flu.
Injection or nasal spray?
The flu vaccine is available as an injection (injection) or as a nasal spray. Nasal sprays are approved for children 2 years of age and older and may not be suitable for people with underlying medical conditions.
The most common side effects of vaccination are local reactions, such as swelling, redness, or soreness at the injection site. Your child may also have a low-grade fever (100-102 degrees or lower).
Less common vaccine side effects are usually mild and include:
- loss of appetite
- Muscle pain
- nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
Most side effects start within 24 hours and last for a day or two. Delayed reactions such as fever and rash may occur 1 to 4 weeks after the MMR and chickenpox vaccines.
rare serious reaction
Serious side effects such as allergic reactions are very rare. If an allergic reaction occurs, it usually begins within 20 minutes to 2 hours. If you are concerned about rare side effects, talk to your pediatrician or healthcare provider before getting the vaccine.
What to do if your baby has side effects
Your 1-year-old may need a little extra love and care after the injection. Keeping them busy with play or distraction may help. To help reduce minor reactions or side effects, you can try the following techniques:
- Cool cloths for local reactions (redness and swelling)
- Cool Sponge Bath for Low Fever
- Offer more beverages to stay hydrated
- Give Tylenol (acetaminophen) or Motrin/Advil (ibuprofen)
Motrin, Advil, and Tylenol are safe for 1-year-olds and can help reduce fever and discomfort. Children should not receive aspirin unless directed by a healthcare provider.
When to contact a pediatrician
Contact their pediatrician or healthcare provider if your 1-year-old has any of the following symptoms:
- Temperature (fever) greater than 104 degrees
- redness greater than 1 inch or lasting more than three days
- Extreme irritability for more than 24 hours
- severe vomiting or diarrhea
When to call 9-1-1
Call 9-1-1 right away if you think your child has a life-threatening emergency or any of the following rare reactions:
- Difficulty breathing
- hard to swallow
- drowsiness (not moving or very weak)
- did not wake up
Could a baby have a fatal reaction to a vaccine?
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend vaccination programs to prevent disease. A 1-year-old’s health checkup typically involves 6 shots, including Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate (PCV), hepatitis A (HAV), influenza, MMR, and chickenpox vaccines.
Side effects from vaccinations are generally mild and parents can usually treat them at home. If your child develops a more serious side effect, call their pediatrician or seek emergency care.
While your child may be stressed by the discomfort of injections, vaccinations are vital to helping them stay healthy. You can help soothe them with a calm, soothing voice and smile. It may also be helpful to bring their favorite toy or blanket to distract and comfort them during or after the appointment.
Frequently Asked Questions
How many injections in 12 months?
Six injections are usually given at 12 months, covering eight diseases. If your child was already vaccinated against the flu during that flu season, they only need five shots.
How can I help my 1 year old after the injection?
Your 1-year-old may need a little extra affection and distraction. Drinking more water can also help them. You can treat redness or low-grade fever at the shot site with a cool cloth or a warm bath. You can also take Tylenol (acetaminophen) or Motrin/Advil (ibuprofen).