ADHD history and medication schedule

Although ADHD is not always recognized, diagnosed, or treated as it is now, in fact, doctors have known about ADHD for some time.

Former name for ADHD

However, they do not always call it ADHD and use the following terms:

  • Brain Injury
  • Brain disabled child
  • Hyperactivity impulse disorder
  • Hyperexcitability syndrome
  • Stupid Kid Syndrome
  • ADHD Childhood Syndrome
  • Hyperactivity in children
  • Minor brain dysfunction
  • Organic encephalopathy
  • Nervous child
  • Attention deficit disorder

Since 1987, it has been called ADHD and is further divided into three subtypes: inattention, hyperactivity/impulsive, and mixed.

History of ADHD

The earliest mention of ADHD-like disorders can be traced back to Sir Alexander Clayton in the late 18th century. Some people even try to say that many celebrities and historical figures may have ADHD, such as Mozart, Leonardo da Vinci or Ben Franklin.

However, it is more commonly believed that the study of ADHD began in the early 20th century:

  • As early as 1902, Sir George Frederick Steele described children with symptoms of ADHD for the first time and was considered to have “moral control defects.”
  • In 1908, Alfred F. Tredgold described “senior mentally handicapped” children who may have a mild brain injury that leads to anti-school behaviors similar to ADHD.
  • Dr. Charles Bradley (Charles Bradley) published a study in 1937 describing the use of amphetamine (racemic amphetamine) in children with behavioral problems. Of children accidentally learn about the benefits of amphetamine when taking medication, but notice that it helps their behavior and school performance.
  • First edition Manual of Diagnosis and Statistics of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1952, which did not mention ADHD-like disorders.
  • Herbert Freed and Charles Peifer studied the use of soprazine (chlorpromazine) in “children with hyperkinetic mood disorder” in 1956.
  • Hyperkinetic impulse disorder was first used in 1957 to describe children with symptoms of ADHD.
  • C. Keith Conners published a study in 1963 on the effects of Ritalin (methylphenidate) on “children with mood disorders”.
  • In 1966, mild brain dysfunction syndrome became a popular term to describe children with “all kinds of impairments in perception, conceptualization, language, memory, and attention control, impulse, or motor function.”
  • In 1967 and 1968, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) provided multiple grants to researchers to study the effectiveness of stimulants for children with ADHD symptoms.
  • second edition Manual of Diagnosis and Statistics of Mental Disorders (DSM-II) was published by APA in 1968, including hyperactivity disorder and organic brain syndrome in children or adolescence.
  • The first Conner Rating Scale was published by C. Keith Conners in 1969, which eventually led to a revised version of the Conner Rating Scale for parents and teachers
  • In 1970, Washington post Published a story describing how 5% to 10% of school children in Omaha, Nebraska received stimulants (such as Ritalin) to control their behavior, even though the statistics only concern children in special education programs. This story has caused controversy in the diagnosis of ADHD and the use of stimulants, especially because it implies that many parents are forced to give their children medication.
  • The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 enacted stimulants such as Ritalin (methylphenidate), Schedule III drugs, and then Schedule II drugs in 1971.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 allows eligible students with ADHD to receive additional help and services at school to help them succeed.
  • The anti-ritalin movement was greatly expanded in 1975, as several books were published to help strengthen the belief that ADHD is not a true diagnosis, it is made by a pharmaceutical company for money, or that ADHD is caused by food allergies and food additives ,etc,.
  • AAP issued their first statement on ADHD, Drugs for children with ADHD, It said that in addition to “consider non-drug treatment when this method is appropriate,” “there are also places where stimulants are used in the treatment of children with ADHD.”
  • Third edition Manual of Diagnosis and Statistics of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) was published by APA in 1980 and included attention deficit disorder for the first time, including hyperactivity ADD, non-hyperactivity ADD and residual subtypes of ADD.
  • Dr. Russell A. Barkley wrote the first of his 17 books on ADHD in 1981- Children with ADHD: Diagnosis and Treatment Manual.
  • The DSM-III-R (revised edition) published in 1987 was renamed again, this time it was renamed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but did not include any subtypes
  • A 1987 report from AAP, Drug treatment for children with attention deficit disorder, To provide “medical indications for the treatment of attention deficit disorder”, such as Ritalin, dextran, Cylert and “other potentially useful drugs”, including tricyclic antidepressants.
  • Dr. Barkley begins publishing ADHD report The 1993 newsletter.
  • Fourth edition Manual of Diagnosis and Statistics of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) published by APA in 2000, describes three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including ADHD, combined type, ADHD, mainly inattention type, and ADHD, mainly It is hyperactive and impulsive.
  • Joseph Biederman published the first of hundreds of medical studies on children with ADHD in 1995.
  • Updated AAP report, Medications for children with attention disordersPublished in 1996, it emphasized that medication should be “combined with proper management of children’s environment and curriculum.”
  • 2000’s Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis and Evaluation of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder AAP provides pediatricians and parents with clear guidance on the evaluation and treatment of children with ADHD.
  • Strattera is the first non-stimulant to treat ADHD and was approved in 2002.
  • The warning labels for ADHD medications were updated in 2007 and include warnings about cardiovascular risks (sudden death in children and adolescents with structural heart abnormalities or other serious heart problems) and risks of adverse mental symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, or mania).

ADHD medication schedule

Dr. Bradley’s research on the use of amphetamine was once thought to herald the modern era of ADHD treatment, but this effect may now have been transferred to the newer, once-a-day ADHD medications taken by most children.

Although many different ADHD drugs seem to have been developed over the years, especially in the past decade, most of them use the same basic active ingredients (methylphenidate and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine) that have been used since the early days of ADHD research .

  • 1937: Amphetamine (racemic amphetamine)
  • 1943: Desoxyn (methamphetamine hydrochloride)
  • 1955: Ritalin (methylphenidate)
  • 1955-1983: Biamphetamine (mixed amphetamine/dextroamphetamine resin)
  • 1960: Adderall (mixed amphetamine/dextroamphetamine salt)
  • 1975-2003: Cylert (pemoline)
  • 1976: Dextrostat (dextroamphetamine)
  • 1976: dextroamphetamine (dextroamphetamine)
  • 1982: Ritalin SR
  • 1999: Metadate ER (methylphenidate)
  • 2000: Concerto (Methylphenidate)
  • 2000: Methylin ER (methylphenidate)
  • 2001: Metadate CD (Methylphenidate)
  • 2001: Focalin (dexmethylphenidate)
  • 2001: Adderall XR (mixed amphetamine salt)
  • 2002: Ritalin Los Angeles
  • 2002: Methylphenidate oral solution and chewable tablets
  • 2002: Strattera (tomoxetine)
  • 2005: Focalin XR (dex methylphenidate)
  • 2006: Daytrana (methylphenidate patch)
  • 2007: Vyvanse (lidesamphetamine dimethanesulfonate)
  • 2008: Procentra (liquid dexamphetamine)
  • 2009: Intuniv (guanfacine hydrochloride)
  • 2010: Kapvay (clonidine hydrochloride)
  • 2012: Quillivant XR (liquid methylphenidate)
  • 2016: Adzenys XR-ODT (amfetamine orally disintegrating tablets)
  • 2016: Quillichew ER (Methylphenidate chewing)
  • 2017: Mydayis (three beads mixed with amphetamine salt)
  • 2017: Cotempla XR-ODT™ (Methylphenidate sustained-release orally disintegrating tablets)
  • 2019: Jornay PM (methylphenidate)
  • 2019: Adhansia XR (methylphenidate)

Many of these ADHD drugs, even slow-release versions, are now available as generic drugs.

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ADHD history and medication schedule
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