Because they are personality disorders, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) have many of the same characteristics. However, the causes and manifestations of these conditions may be quite different.
Antisocial personality disorder
according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), people with antisocial personality disorder must be over 18 years old and have serious functional problems in the following two specific areas:
- Self-function: ASPD is broadly defined as people who only think about themselves and/or focus on personal goals and satisfaction without considering culturally acceptable or ethical behavior. By definition, ASPD patients gain a sense of self-esteem by pursuing happiness, power, or obtaining what they want.
- Interpersonal skills: ASPD patients cannot show care or empathy for other people’s feelings or needs. It is difficult for them to form any real sense of intimacy, but instead use power to play a leading role in the relationship.
ASPD personality traits
According to DSM-5, ASPD patients may exhibit the following behavioral characteristics:
- Confrontation: Confrontation in ASPD is manifested through manipulation, such as using charming behavior to influence someone. People with ASPD often resort to retaliatory behavior due to slight contempt, and may even resort to aggression, violence, and cruelty.
- Disinhibition: Disinhibition of ASPD is characterized by ignoring social customs and reckless risk-taking behavior, at the expense of the safety or feelings of others. It is not uncommon for people with ASPD to break promises, miss appointments, or give up activities due to boredom or malice.
- Emotional detachment: ASPD patients exhibit greater self-centered behaviors, making it difficult to establish a balanced and supportive relationship. This emotional alienation will complicate psychotherapy, and the practice of psychotherapy relies heavily on open interaction.
Borderline Personality Disorder
To be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a person must have serious problems in both of the following areas:
- Self-function: People with BPD often struggle with identity and are prone to feelings of emptiness, self-loathing, and worthlessness. Because of this, they find it difficult to establish goals or pursue long-term interests, and often weaken themselves at every turn.
- Interpersonal skills: Inferiority complex usually manifests itself as being overly sensitive to anything that is regarded as criticism or rejection. People with BPD tend to make irrational attacks on minor contempt (such as interrupted conversation). Unable to exceed their own feelings, people with BPD often lack empathy and find themselves in conflict-prone and unstable relationships.
BPD personality traits
Patients with BPD may have the following personality characteristics:
- Negative emotions: Negative emotions are characterized by unstable and unpredictable emotional changes, which are more severe than the situation warrants. This includes intense anxiety about social situations, persistent fear of rejection, or sudden deep depression, shame, or guilt. Suicidal thoughts are not uncommon.
- Disinhibition: People with BPD may make impulsive and risk-taking behaviors. This is usually due to frantic efforts to avoid real or expected abandonment or to change an intolerable emotional state. These behaviors often turn inward, leading to self-harm or self-destruction. Dating, promises, and activities are more likely to give up because of despair or anger rather than boredom.
- Confrontation: People with BPD are easily irritated, but are less likely to shut others out. Instead, they will look for relationships that can alternate between the extremes of idealization and devaluation.
Similarities between ASPD and BPD
In DSM-5, ASPD and BPD are both classified as B personality disorder. Group B disorders are characterized by excessively emotional, dramatic, and unpredictable thinking and behavior. The similarities between ASPD and BPD include:
- Disinhibition: ASPD and BPD are both related to disinhibition. However, people with ASPD show inhibition by participating in impulsive behavior “because they can”, while people with BPD do this to combat negative emotions.
- Hostility: People with ASPD and BPD will become extremely angry due to slight contempt. People with ASPD tend to consciously resort to cruel and hostile behavior to lash out, while people with BPD continue to be angry and may self-harm.
- Impulsive burnout: According to DSM-5, people may be less likely to meet the diagnostic criteria for ASPD or BPD by the late middle age. This is called “burnout”, which is a state in which the emotional expression of a disease changes with age.
- Suicidal tendency: The suicide rate of ASPD and BPD is between 3% and 10%.
Difference between ASPD and BPD
There are as many differences and similarities between ASPD and BPD, including:
- Symptoms: ASPD consists of a small amount of emotions, while BPD consists of extreme emotions, mood swings, and inability to regulate emotions.
- Gender: Some studies have shown that BPD is equally common in men and women, but men are less likely to seek treatment. In contrast, the incidence of ASPD in men is approximately five times that of women.
- Age: There is no age requirement for BPD. However, you must be at least 18 years old to be diagnosed with ASPD.
- Treatment: Certain forms of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and psychotherapy-based therapy (MBT), are very effective in treating BPD.In contrast, it is well known that ASPD is difficult to treat with psychotherapy.
Very good sentence
Antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder are two distinct disorders, although they do have some overlapping characteristics. Both are possible because many people have more than one personality disorder. If you think you may have a personality disorder or worry about your emotions and behavior, please consult your doctor. Only a well-trained mental health professional can diagnose you.