Common conditions that may affect the uterus

Several health conditions can affect the uterus or uterus. Some are severe, while others require minimal treatment. Many involve similar symptoms, such as pelvic pain or irregular bleeding. It is important to see a healthcare provider so you can get the correct diagnosis and treatment.

This article explores some of the most common uterine health conditions. It also needs to see how they are diagnosed and treated.

Uterine structure

The uterus is a pear-shaped structure in the pelvis. It is located behind the bladder and in front of the rectum. The uterus grows during pregnancy. After that, it shrunk almost to its original size within a few weeks.

on each side of the uterus oviduct and ovaries. The uterus, vagina, ovaries and fallopian tubes make up the female reproductive system. Because these organs are so close to each other, pelvic pain may be related to the uterus or something else entirely.

Anatomy of the Uterus

Uterine condition

Some of these health conditions start in the womb. Others are caused by factors outside the uterus, such as hormones.


dysmenorrhea It’s menstrual pain. It can happen before and/or during your period. Period pain itself is not necessarily a sign of a medical condition. It usually improves with pain medication or hormone therapy.


menorrhagia It is heavy menstrual bleeding. It can also refer to bleeding that lasts too long. It can occur without any known cause, or it can be a symptom of:

  • hormone imbalance
  • fibroids
  • polyp
  • certain types of birth control
  • cancer
  • other health conditions

Heavy bleeding can lead to iron deficiency anemia, which is a low red blood cell count. If your red blood cell count is low, you may need treatment to control bleeding and anemia.


Pain and heavy bleeding may be related to uterine problems. Pain itself is not always a sign of disease. Heavy bleeding can come from hormonal changes, growth, medications, or even cancer.

uterine prolapse

Uterine prolapse means that the muscles and ligaments that hold the uterus in place have weakened. The uterus descends. Many people develop mild to moderate uterine prolapse as they age.

The most common symptoms are:

  • Feeling like you need to urinate urgently
  • Urine leakage
  • Pain during or after sex in severe cases

retroverted uterus

In this case, the uterus is tilted too far back toward the spine. Most of the time, it causes no symptoms. In rare cases, it can cause problems during pregnancy. Your healthcare provider may spot this condition during a pelvic exam.

congenital uterine malformation

Sometimes the uterus has an atypical shape. This can make pregnancy more difficult and increase the risk of miscarriage. Your healthcare provider may spot this condition on an ultrasound. It can also be found on a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen.

These differences may include:

  • Septate uterus: The uterus has two separate sides. Uterine tissue almost or completely separates one side from the other.
  • Bicornuate uterus: The uterus is shaped like a heart. The two halves are almost equal in size. They are not isolated from each other like septate uterus.
  • Didelphis Uterus: The uterus is divided, usually near the lower opening. Each section has a separate cervical opening.
  • unicorn Uterus: The uterus is small with only one fallopian tube. Sometimes there will be a second part that is not fully developed.


Certain conditions can change the shape or orientation of the uterus itself. If your uterus is positioned too low in the abdomen, tilted backwards, or abnormally shaped, it can cause pain, leak urine, or problems with pregnancy. For some people, these differences cause no symptoms at all.

pelvic inflammatory disease

Sometimes bacteria or microorganisms can enter the cervix and travel up. Infections can affect one or more pelvic organs, including the uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes. This is called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Symptoms may include:

  • freed
  • stench
  • urgent need to urinate
  • pain


Uterine polyps are common. These small, soft growths in the uterus can cause heavy menstrual bleeding, spotting between periods, and post-coital bleeding.


Fibroids are growths in the uterine wall or endometrial lining. Sometimes, they are attached to the outside of the uterus by a stem. They can be as small as a seed or larger than an orange.

Symptoms include:

  • heavy or prolonged bleeding on or between your periods
  • pelvic pain or pressure
  • back pain
  • pain during sex
  • difficulty getting pregnant

Although fibroids are sometimes called tumors, they are not cancers. They do not invade tissue or spread to other parts of the body like cancer does.

endometrial hyperplasia

endometrial hyperplasia It occurs when too many cells grow in the lining of the uterus. As a result, the uterus becomes very thick. This condition can cause abnormal bleeding.

It’s not cancer, but in some cases it can cause uterine cancer. Symptoms include:

  • abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • freed
  • Abnormal Pap test


With endometriosis, the same tissue that lines the uterus grows elsewhere in the body. Most of the time, it grows in the abdomen or ovaries. This causes scar tissue to form around the affected organ. People with endometriosis often have endometrial hyperplasia, but not always.

Symptoms include:

  • painful or heavy periods
  • irregular bleeding or spotting
  • pain during or after sex
  • abdominal or bowel pain
  • pain when urinating or defecating

Uterine scarring (Asherman’s syndrome)

Sometimes scarring develops after surgery, radiation therapy, or injury to the uterus. These scars are also called adhesions or Asherman’s syndrome. It may cause you to have no periods or light bleeding during your period. Severe cases can cause pain or infection.


Uterine cancer can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding. The most common type is endometrial cancer. If it has spread outside the uterus, aggressive treatment is required.


Abnormal cells sometimes grow in or on the uterus. Polyps, fibroids, scar tissue, cancer, microbes, and extra uterine tissue can cause bleeding, pain, and other symptoms.

chronic pelvic pain

If your healthcare provider cannot determine the cause of your pain, you may be diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain. When your pain gets worse, you may need treatment. You may also be more sensitive to other painful conditions, such as gastrointestinal or bladder infections.


Symptoms of uterine disease include:

  • irregular period
  • freed
  • pelvic pain or discomfort
  • low back pain
  • difficulty urinating
  • difficulty getting pregnant

During each phase of the menstrual cycle, the uterus changes. Symptoms may get better or worse throughout the month.


Your medical history and symptoms can help your healthcare provider decide which tests you need. Some of the most common tests are:

  • Pelvic exam: This can identify problems such as prolapse or retrograde uterus. A pelvic exam cannot fully assess what is happening in the womb. You may need other tests to confirm your diagnosis.
  • Pap smear: This test identifies changes in the cells of the cervix. That is the opening of the uterus. If you haven’t had a recent Pap smear, this test may be a good place to start if you have symptoms of uterine disease.
  • Urinalysis: This test checks the urine for signs of infection and sometimes cancer cells.
  • Blood sample: Sometimes these tests identify hormonal changes that may affect the uterus.
  • Imaging tests: Ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scans produce images of the uterus. They can reveal differences in shape, size or location. With some CT scans, doctors may inject dye into blood vessels to create a clearer image.
  • Interventional procedures: These tests use tiny cameras to explore the inside of the uterus without a hysteroscopy, the doctor inserts a tube into the cervix to look inside the a Hysterosalpingography or a Uterine Ultrasoundthe doctor injects fluid or dye into the cervix to see inside the uterus.


If you have pain, bleeding, leaking urine, or pregnancy problems, a pelvic exam and Pap test may be enough to pinpoint the problem. If not, you may need urine, blood, imaging scans, or “range” tests to confirm the diagnosis.


The correct treatment depends on what is causing your symptoms. Some of the most common treatments include:

  • Antibiotics: Infections such as PID require antibiotics.
  • Hormone therapy: Endometriosis is usually treated with medications such as birth control pills. If symptoms are severe, endometrial hyperplasia, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia can be treated with hormones.
  • Embolization: Uterine fibroids can be used embolism. This procedure is not as invasive as surgery. Healthcare providers use long, thin tubes to insert drugs or materials to cut off the blood supply to the fibroids. Then the fibroids shrink. If necessary, polyps can be treated with the same treatments.
  • Surgery: Uterine prolapse can be treated with surgery. In severe cases, the uterus can be removed. Fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, endometriosis, and cancer can also be treated with surgery.
  • Watch: Sometimes the best approach is to watch and wait. For example, if you have a uterine malformation, your health care provider may keep an eye on your pregnancy. If the uterus is retrograde, you can pay attention to bladder symptoms. At some point, you may need strategies for dealing with leaking urine.

In some cases, treatments are combined. This is especially true in severe cases or when a single treatment is not working well.


The uterus can be affected by many different conditions, some of which have similar symptoms. These conditions can be caused by how the uterus is formed, infections, hormonal changes, or scarring and growth.

Most of the time, symptoms include pain, abnormal bleeding, and urine leakage. Physical exams, lab tests, and imaging scans can reveal the problem. Drugs, hormones, embolization, and surgery are all options for treating different conditions. You and your healthcare provider can work together to develop a treatment plan.

VigorTip words

If you have symptoms of uterine disease, it can be difficult to know if something serious is going on. It’s a good idea to discuss your symptoms with a healthcare provider. Treatment can improve many outcomes and may resolve some conditions entirely.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Which uterine disorders are considered emergencies?

    You should seek medical help right away for anything that could cause sudden blood loss. This includes ectopic pregnancy, PID with abscesses or fluid-filled pockets, fibroids complications, and uterine bleeding.

  • What uterine conditions can cause pain during intercourse?

    Several uterine disorders can cause painful intercourse. These conditions include fibroids, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy.

Common causes of pelvic pain in women