Overview of Disordered Schizophrenia

Worldwide, schizophrenia affects 1% of the population. It is a lifelong disease that can cause severe functional impairment.Disorganized schizophrenia, also known as hebephrenic schizophrenia or hebephrenia (based on the Greek term for adolescence), is a subtype of schizophrenia, previously in the fourth edition Manual of Diagnosis and Statistics of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).

DSM-IV includes five subtypes of schizophrenia, including disordered, paranoid, tonic, undifferentiated, and residual.The subtype has been removed from the current version of DSM (DSM-5, released in 2013) because it is determined that they are not helpful in treating diseases.

Despite the changes, disordered symptoms are still a criterion for diagnosing schizophrenia. Some people may show more of these types of symptoms than other symptoms of the disease. In the most general sense, disordered schizophrenia refers to a disorder in the thought process, behavior, and emotional regulation (emotion).


Diagnosing schizophrenia involves a series of comprehensive medical tests to rule out other possible causes or factors contributing to the patient’s symptoms, including physical examination, blood count, thyroid assessment, drug and alcohol use assessment, and possibly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT scan ruled out brain disease or other abnormalities.

In addition, a psychiatric evaluation will be conducted to determine the thoughts, feelings, behavior patterns, family history, and other medical history of patients with symptoms suggestive of schizophrenia.

Diagnose according to DSM-5 standards. A person must provide two or more of the following for most of the month (at least one of them must be from the first three items in the list):

  1. Delusion
  2. Hallucinations
  3. Disorganized speech
  4. Severely disordered or nervous behavior
  5. Negative symptoms

In addition, the person must show signs of impaired life function and persistent impairment for at least 6 months.

Disorganized symptoms

What are the disorder symptoms of schizophrenia? In short, they belong to the third and fourth types of symptoms listed in DSM-5 for diagnosis of diseases. People who are experiencing symptoms of schizophrenia may exhibit any of the following conditions:

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  • Problems with daily tasks such as dressing, bathing and brushing teeth
  • Show emotions that are inappropriate for the situation
  • Dull or flat effect
  • Impaired communication skills, including speech
  • The use and order of words
  • Unable to think clearly and react appropriately
  • Use nonsense words/fabricated words (new words)
  • Quickly move from one idea to the next without a logical connection
  • It doesn’t make any sense to write a lot
  • Forget or lose something
  • Pace or circle
  • Have problems understanding everyday things
  • Answer questions with irrelevant answers
  • Repeat the same thing over and over again
  • Problems with achieving goals or completing tasks
  • Lack of impulse control
  • Unable to make eye contact
  • Childish behavior
  • Social withdrawal

These disordered symptoms of schizophrenia cover a series of problems related to thought, speech, behavior, and emotions. Unfortunately, these symptoms can interfere with activities of daily living and communication with others.


The peak age of onset of schizophrenia is in the 20s for men and 20s for women. Schizophrenia is most often diagnosed from late adolescence to early adulthood.

Since the onset of disorder symptoms is usually gradual and may be due to other problems experienced during this period, such as trying to adjust to adulthood, signs of disorder caused by schizophrenia are not always easy to spot. Unfortunately, when schizophrenia starts earlier and treatment starts later, the prognosis is worse.

Causes and risk factors

We don’t know what causes schizophrenia. However, it is believed to be caused by a combination of biological and environmental factors, as well as effects on brain cells and different neurotransmitter systems. The following risk factors are related to the development of the disease:

  • Family history of schizophrenia
  • Viral infection as a fetus during pregnancy (for example, flu, herpes, toxoplasmosis, rubella)
  • Fetal malnutrition during pregnancy
  • Experienced severe stress in the early years
  • Born by older parents
  • Use of recreational drugs during adolescence (although on the contrary, substance use can also be a result of schizophrenia)
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Having one or more of these risk factors does not mean that a person will definitely develop schizophrenia. However, showing symptoms of the disease and one or more of these risk factors may indicate the need for medical attention. Doctors can evaluate the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.


Very similar to other mental health disorders, the main treatments for schizophrenia are medication and psychotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment means better results, especially in the case of symptom disorders, because these can have a significant impact on education, job hunting and independent living.

Schizophrenia Discussion Guide

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Drugs for schizophrenia include antipsychotic drugs. In severe cases, a person diagnosed with schizophrenia may need to be hospitalized to ensure a stable or safe condition.

Drugs to treat this disease will help reduce confusion and improve function. Some people may also be prescribed antidepressants, mood stabilizers, or anxiolytics, and antipsychotics to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia.


Talk therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), can be used to treat schizophrenia to address specific life problems and help patients develop coping strategies to deal with these problems. Learning to regulate emotions by examining thinking processes is a useful strategy that can be developed through CBT.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

ECT involves sending electrical current through the brain to cause seizures and the release of neurochemicals, and may be helpful for those who are also at risk of suicide, severe depression, or stubborn symptoms.

Skills Training

Skills training can be used to help people with schizophrenia find jobs, continue their education, or learn how to communicate better with others, despite their symptoms.

Family support

Although it is not a treatment in itself, the support of family members plays an important role in the treatment effect of patients with schizophrenia. Family members need to understand and understand this disease and learn how to best support their loved ones.


As with other mental health conditions, patients with schizophrenia have many complications. These may include:

  • Frustrated
  • Family conflicts
  • Homeless
  • Participate in crime (as victim, perpetrator, or both)
  • Low level of education
  • Malnutrition
  • Poor living conditions (for example, unable to keep up with housework)
  • Poor medication compliance
  • Poor personal hygiene
  • poor
  • Suicide risk
  • Substance use for self-medication
  • unemployment

Unfortunately, many people with this disease believe that they do not need medication or can stop taking medication once their symptoms begin to relieve.

If you are a patient with schizophrenia, it is important to follow your doctor’s advice no matter how you feel. If you are a family member of someone with schizophrenia, be sure to check them frequently. Please pay attention to the signs and symptoms of diseases that may recur if you stop taking the medicine.

Disorganized schizophrenia is a lifelong disease that requires continuous treatment, and symptoms will recover without medication.

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Disorganized schizophrenia involves obstacles to daily activities and communication with others. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have symptoms of this disease, be sure to see a doctor for evaluation and diagnosis.

Early detection and treatment means a better prognosis, especially when a person lives in chaotic thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Appropriate treatment in the form of drugs and/or therapy is required; without professional treatment, symptoms are unlikely to go away on their own.