People have been trying to understand personality for a long time, and many theories have been developed to explain how personality develops and how it affects behavior. Psychologist Raymond Cattell (Raymond Cattell) proposed one such theory. He created a taxonomy of 16 different personality characteristics that can be used to describe and explain the individual differences between people’s personalities.
Cattell’s personality factors are included in the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF), which is widely used in education and career counseling today. In business, it is used for personnel selection, especially for selecting managers. It is also used for clinical diagnosis and planning treatment by assessing anxiety, adaptation, and behavioral problems.
Cartel was born in 1905 and has witnessed the emergence of many inventions in the 20th century, such as electricity, telephones, automobiles, and airplanes. He was inspired by these innovations and was eager to apply the scientific methods used to make such discoveries to human thoughts and personalities.
He believes that personality is more than just some unknowable and untestable mystery. This is something that can be researched and organized. Through scientific research, human characteristics and behaviors can be predicted based on potential personality characteristics.
Cartel collaborated with psychologist Charles Spearman, who is known for his pioneering work in statistics. Cattell later used factor analysis techniques developed by Spearman to create his own personality classification.
Personality traits method
Psychologists have long debated how to define and describe personality. One of these key ideas is called the theory of personality traits. According to the trait theory, a person’s personality is composed of many broad traits or personalities.
Some of these feature theories were the first to try to describe every feature that might exist. For example, psychologist Gordon Allport (Gordon Allport) discovered more than 4,000 words in English that can be used to describe personality characteristics.
Although this method is good at identifying different types of features, it is clumsy and difficult to use. For example, many of these features are very similar, so it is difficult to distinguish certain features from others. This ambiguity also makes it difficult to study these personality characteristics.
16 personality factors
Raymond Cattell analyzed Allport’s list and reduced it to 171 features, mainly by removing redundant or uncommon terms. Then, he uses a statistical technique called factor analysis to identify features that are related to each other. In this way, he was able to reduce his list to 16 key personality factors.
According to Cartel, personality traits are continuous. In other words, everyone has these 16 traits to a certain extent, but there may be some high traits and some low traits.
The following list of personality traits describes some descriptive terms used in each of the 16 personality dimensions described by Cattell.
- Abstraction: Imagination and Reality
- Worry: worry and self-confidence
- Dominance: Dominance and Submissive
- Emotional stability: calm and high tension
- Lively: Spontaneity and restraint
- Openness to change: flexibility and attachment to familiar things
- Perfectionism: Control and Undiscipline
- Privacy: Discretion and Openness
- Reasoning: Abstract and Concrete
- Rule awareness: compliance and non-compliance
- Self-reliance: self-sufficiency and dependence
- Sensitivity: soft-hearted versus stubborn
- Social boldness: unruly and shy
- Tensions: hospitalization and relaxation
- Vigilance: Doubt and Trust
- Warmth: extroverted and introverted
16PF Personality Questionnaire
Cartel developed an assessment based on these 16 personality factors. This test is called the 16PF personality questionnaire, and it is still used frequently today, especially in career counseling, marriage counseling, and corporate employee testing and selection.
The test consists of mandatory selection questions, and the respondent must choose one of three different options. Personality characteristics are then represented by a range where the individual’s score falls on the continuum between the highest and lowest extremes.
Depending on the reason for using the test, many different systems can be used to interpret the score. Some explanatory reports use clinical methods to study personality, while others focus more on topics such as career choice, teamwork development, and leadership potential.
Many studies support the effectiveness of the test, including its application in professional development and personality assessment.
The free version of the 16PF questionnaire is available online through the open source psychometric project. This test is for educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional advice or medical diagnosis. Talk to a mental health provider or professional testing service, and let a professional administer the test and interpret your results.