In the early days of psychological history, many experiments were conducted under very problematic and even heinous violations of ethical considerations. For example, Milgram’s infamous obedience experiment involves deceiving human subjects into believing that they are giving a painful and possibly life-threatening electric shock to another person.
These controversial psychological experiments have played an important role in the development of moral codes and regulations that psychologists must abide by today. When conducting research or experiments involving human participants, psychologists must submit their recommendations to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for approval. These committees help ensure that experiments comply with ethical and legal guidelines.
Codes of ethics, such as those established by the American Psychological Association, are designed to protect the safety and best interests of those involved in psychological research.Such guidelines also protect the reputation of psychologists, the field of psychology itself, and the institutions that sponsor psychological research.
Human Subject Research Ethics Guidelines
When determining the ethics of research, most experts agree that the cost of conducting experiments must be weighed against the potential benefits that the research may bring to society. Although there is still a lot of debate about ethics, there are some key elements that should be followed when conducting any type of research on human subjects.
Participation must be voluntary
All ethics research must be conducted by voluntary participants.Research volunteers should not feel intimidated, threatened, or bribed to participate. This is especially important for researchers working in universities or prisons, where students and prisoners are often encouraged to participate in experiments.
Researchers must obtain informed consent
Informed consent is a procedure in which all study participants are informed of the procedure and informed of any potential risks.Consent should be recorded in writing. Informed consent ensures that participants have enough knowledge about the experiment to make an informed decision about whether they want to participate.
Obviously, this can cause problems in situations where telling participants the necessary details about the experiment may unduly affect their reactions or behavior in the research. The use of deception in psychology research is permitted under certain circumstances, but the premise is that the research cannot be conducted without deception, if the research will provide some kind of valuable insight, and if the subject will listen to the report and be informed after the data is collected The real purpose of the research.
Researchers must keep participants confidential
Confidentiality is an important part of any ethical psychology research.It is necessary to ensure that participants will not share identifying information and personal responses with anyone who is not involved in the research.
Although these guidelines provide some ethical standards for research, each research is different and may present unique challenges. Therefore, most colleges and universities have a human subject committee or institutional review committee responsible for overseeing and obtaining approval for any research conducted by faculty, staff or students. These committees provide important guarantees to ensure that academic research is ethical and does not pose a risk to research participants.