What is bipolar disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition defined by periods of extreme mood disorder (better known as episodes). Bipolar disorder affects a person’s mood, thoughts, and behavior.

There are two main types of bipolar disorder: bipolar I and bipolar II.according to Manual of Diagnosis and Statistics of Mental Disorders, Bipolar I disorder involves the onset of severe mania and depression. Bipolar disorder Type II mania involves a less severe form of mania called hypomania.

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Although there are major differences between the two types of mania in bipolar disorder, the symptoms have many similarities.

Depressive episode

In bipolar type I disorder, major depressive episodes (one or more times) usually Happens, but is not required. Bipolar type II disorder involves one or more major depressive episodes. Common symptoms of a major depressive episode include:

  • Insomnia or drowsiness
  • Unexplainable or uncontrollable crying
  • Severe fatigue
  • Loss of interest in things the patient liked during euthanasia
  • Recurring thoughts of death or suicide

Both diseases may include Mood— Asymptomatic or “normal” state.


The manic episode lasts at least 7 days. Individuals experiencing a manic episode may experience:

  • Euphoric feeling
  • Less need for sleep
  • Increased libido
  • Hallucinations or delusions
  • Significant increase in energy

During a manic episode, individuals may engage in adventurous or reckless behaviors. For example, someone may be addicted to dangerous sex, spend too much money, or make impulsive decisions.

It is important to note that experiencing mania does not automatically mean that a person will become violent or dangerous.

Sometimes people think that a “manic episode” means that someone has become a “lunatic”. This is not true.


People who experience hypomanic episodes may experience similar symptoms, but their function is not significantly impaired. Many people who experience hypomania associated with biphasic II enjoy increased energy and decreased sleep requirements.

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Hypomanic episodes do not escalate to the point where hospitalization is required. This can happen to a manic person—especially when he or she poses a threat to others and/or himself.


Although the exact cause of bipolar disorder is unclear, genetics are thought to play a major role. This is partially proven in studies of twins, one or both of which have a diagnosis of biphasic I. In 40% of identical twins (twins with the same genome), the twins are found to be biphasic, while the proportion of fraternal twins (not sharing all the same genes) is less than 10%.

Other influencing factors include a person’s brain circuit abnormalities, neurotransmitter abnormalities, and environmental factors such as childhood trauma or abuse.


When diagnosing bipolar disorder (regardless of type), mental health clinicians must rule out other diseases that may have similar symptoms, such as schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, delusional disorder, or schizophrenia.

Bipolar disorder cannot be diagnosed like other diseases. In these diseases, blood tests, X-rays or physical examinations can provide a clear diagnosis. The diagnosis is based on a set of criteria that a person must meet to be considered bipolar disorder.

A wise diagnosis may include specific tests to rule out other physical effects on bipolar symptoms. This may involve drug screening, imaging tests (CT scan or MRI of the brain), electroencephalogram (EEG) and a complete set of diagnostic blood tests. Your doctor will also ask you questions, and you should do your best to work closely with your medical team to confirm the diagnosis and find a suitable treatment plan for you.

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Bipolar Disorder Discussion Guide

Get our printable guide to help you ask the right questions the next time you see a doctor.


The treatment of bipolar type I disorder is highly individualized and based on the type and severity of symptoms that a person may be experiencing.

Mood stabilizers are the core of the treatment process, and other agents are often used, such as:

  • Mood stabilizers, such as lithium
  • Anticonvulsants that stabilize mood swings
  • Antipsychotics used to control psychotic symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations), and new “atypical” antipsychotics with self-stable emotional properties
  • Antidepressants (less commonly used because they can trigger manic episodes)

In more severe cases, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be used to help relieve mania or severe depression.

Both types should be handled properly

Because hypomania is less severe than bipolar type I mania, bipolar type II is often described as “milder” than bipolar type I—but this is not entirely accurate. Of course, patients with bipolar disorder type I may experience more severe symptoms during mania, but hypomania is still a serious disease that may have life-changing consequences, so it should be properly addressed.

In addition, studies have shown that bipolar II depression has longer and more severe episodes. In fact, over time, patients with bipolar disorder II are less likely to return to full normal function between episodes.

A study clearly concluded that compared with type I, biphasic type II is associated with a poorer health-related quality of life. This is still true even during prolonged periods of peace of mind.

Therefore, experts tend to believe that bipolar type II disorder is as disabling as bipolar type I (if not more) because it may lead to more lifetime depression, and the overall performance between episodes is poor. good.Appropriate treatment should be sought for all types of bipolar disorder, and you should work closely with your medical team to find the best treatment for you.


Like many mental health conditions, bipolar disorder is associated with a certain sense of stigma in society, which may make it more difficult for you or your loved ones to cope with the situation.Know that stigma is often caused by lack of knowledge-those who make comments or discriminate are usually ignorant or fear based on what they think they know about the disease.

Regardless of whether people with bipolar disorder are directly facing stigma, know that the best way to deal with this situation is to contact other people who are experiencing it and get professional help. You can also fight stigma to help you deal with it better and read your rights.

In the kids

Bipolar disorder can occur in children of any age.It is important for parents and caregivers to understand these unique signs-they should pay attention to the child’s function, feelings, and any family medical history. Through timely diagnosis, a treatment plan for symptom management can be better formulated.

Very good sentence

Bipolar disorder is a complex emotional disorder. If you are concerned about symptoms of bipolar disorder in you or a loved one, seek medical advice for proper evaluation.

Although bipolar disorder cannot be cured, it is treatable. With the correct medication and support, symptoms can be controlled and the quality of life will not be severely affected.