What is catalepsy?
Catalepsy includes loss of voluntary movement, muscle stiffness, fixed posture, and reduced sensitivity to pain. It is a symptom of many diseases, including epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, substance abuse, catatonia, schizophrenia, and as a side effect of certain types of drugs used to treat schizophrenia.
This article discusses some signs that someone has catalepsy, the conditions that may cause it, and how to treat them.
Signs of catalepsy
Some signs of catalepsy include:
- Reduced or slowed movement
- Reduce muscle control
- Reduced sensitivity to pain
- Loss of muscle control
- Stiff body posture
- Stiff limbs
- Slow breathing
- Slow down of bodily functions
- Waxy flexibility (keep the limbs in the same position when moving)
The flexibility of wax is related to diseases such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. People with this symptom only slightly resist moving their bodies or limbs to different positions. The individual will then remain in this new position without attempting to reposition the body.
People with catalepsia are not only less sensitive to pain, but also less sensitive to general touch. When a person has this symptom, they don’t seem to respond, nor do they respond to words.
If a person suffers from catalepsy, the doctor may observe this symptom and consider the person’s medical history and other symptoms in order to make a diagnosis. The doctor may conduct a physical examination and conduct laboratory tests to see what factors may cause the patient to develop symptoms.
The diagnosis made by the doctor will depend on the other symptoms a person is experiencing.For example, a person suffering from catalepsy echo, coma, and Silence May be diagnosed as catatonia.
Causes of catalepsy
Catalepsy is not a unique disease in itself, but a symptom of certain types of neurological disorders and other diseases. Some conditions that can cause catalepsy include:
- Cocaine withdrawal
- Ketamine use
- Parkinson’s Disease
According to a 2013 study, catalepsy is caused by the blockade of certain dopamine receptors in neural circuits related to motor behavior.
It may also occur as a side effect of some antipsychotic drugs (including haloperidol) used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This side effect may affect the medication compliance of patients with schizophrenia.
Catalepsy with waxy flexibility or stiff limbs used to be the main content of stage hypnosis. The hypnotist will advise the individual not to move, and then locate the posture that the individual will maintain until the hypnotist ends the hypnotic state.
Treatment of catalepsy
The treatment of catalepsy depends on the underlying disease causing this symptom. Once the diagnosis is made, the healthcare provider will recommend treatment to resolve the underlying cause. Cases of catalepsy caused by stress or trauma usually resolve over time. In this case, psychotherapy may also help.
Some treatments that can be used to help relieve catalepsy include:
- Antipsychotics: If catalepsy is related to schizophrenia or catatonia and other mental illnesses, antipsychotics can be prescribed.
- Muscle relaxants: Some people may find that muscle relaxants help reduce stiffness in muscles, limbs, and posture caused by catalepsy.
Research has also shown that adenosine antagonists may help treat haloperidol-induced catalepsy. In a study, it was found that caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist that can significantly reduce stiffness and improve exercise.
A 2018 study found that deep brain stimulation (DBS) can effectively alleviate the catalepsy caused by haloperidol in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Deep brain stimulation is a surgical technique in which a device is implanted in a specific area of the brain to provide a small electric shock.
As researchers learn more about the causes of catalepsy, other treatments may be about to emerge.In a study published in 2020 Translational Psychiatry, The researchers found that the catalepsy caused by haloperidol is caused by the brain called Striatum.
What is the striatum?
The striatum is an area of the brain that plays a vital role in promoting voluntary movement. The striatum guides information and instructions to the basal ganglia, and then the basal ganglia begin to move.
According to the results of the study, a key protein called mTOR plays a key role in dopamine 2 signaling. When this protein is over-produced or under-produced in the striatum of the brain, it can cause serious diseases and problems, such as catalepsy.
The study also found that drugs used to prevent rejection in organ transplants and other operations can prevent or treat cases of catalepsy caused by haloperidol.
The use of this drug to treat this type of catalepsy was discovered accidentally. The researchers noticed this effect when they used haloperidol and rapamycin in their study of the striatum.
Although promising, it is important to note that more research is needed to better understand how to best use these treatments.
There is currently no FDA-approved treatment for catalepsy. It is usually treated by addressing the underlying disease causing this symptom. As researchers continue to discover brain structures and chemicals that may be involved in the development of catalepsy, new treatments may be discovered.
Coping with catalepsy
If you think someone has catalepsy, you should seek medical attention. Catalepsy can be potentially dangerous, and people showing symptoms should be evaluated to help ensure their safety. The healthcare provider can then determine the cause of this symptom and provide helpful treatments.
For catalepsy caused by substances such as cocaine or ketamine, the symptoms usually subside over time. However, people with withdrawal symptoms should consult a doctor. A healthcare provider can monitor the detox process and may be able to prescribe medications that can help you safely detox and reduce withdrawal symptoms.
For catalepsy caused by other diseases such as Parkinson’s disease or epilepsy, your doctor will work with you to develop a treatment plan that suits your needs.
Very good sentence
Catalepsy can be a serious and worrying symptom of many health conditions. If you or someone you love has this symptom, your first step should be to seek medical assistance for proper diagnosis and treatment.