What is papillary renal cell carcinoma?

Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer.

The kidneys are two small organs responsible for removing waste products from the blood. Papillary renal cell carcinoma forms in the cells that line the tubules of the kidneys (called renal tubules). These tubes filter waste from the blood and produce urine.

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer, with papillary renal cell carcinoma accounting for about 15 percent of these cases.

Papillary tumors usually look like long, thin growths. There are two types of papillary renal cell carcinoma.

This article will provide an overview of the causes and symptoms of papillary renal cell carcinoma. It will also discuss diagnostic tests and treatment options.

Types of papillary renal cell carcinoma

There are two types of papillary renal cell carcinoma, and their prognosis is very different.

  • Type 1: This type of cancer tends to grow slowly and is less likely to spread than type 2. People diagnosed with hereditary papillary kidney cancer have a higher risk of developing type 1.
  • Type 2: This type of cancer tends to spread faster than type 1. People with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma have a higher risk of developing type 2.

papillary renal cell carcinoma symptoms

Not everyone with papillary renal cell carcinoma will experience any symptoms. However, you may notice the following signs and symptoms:

  • blood in the urine
  • Low back pain (low back pain)
  • abdominal pain or swelling
  • unexpected weight loss
  • fatigue
  • fever
  • A lump on the side of the abdomen
  • Swollen veins around the testicles (varicoceles)
  • excessive hair growth in women
  • pale complexion
  • Vision change
  • liver changes
  • Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (blood test)

reason

Papillary renal cell carcinoma usually occurs randomly and has no known cause. This is called sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma.

Although rare, papillary renal cell carcinoma has the potential to run in families. Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma is an inherited disease caused by mutations in the MET gene. This mutation increases your risk of developing papillary renal cell carcinoma type 1.

risk factor

Known risk factors for papillary renal cell carcinoma include:

  • smokes
  • obesity
  • hereditary leiomyomatosis
  • renal cell carcinoma
  • receiving dialysis treatment
  • high blood pressure (high blood pressure)
  • Family history of kidney cancer
  • Horseshoe kidney (a condition where two kidneys join together at the bottom to form a horseshoe shape)
  • polycystic kidney disease
  • long-term use of pain relievers or diuretics
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease
  • Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome

What is the cause of kidney cancer? Who is at risk?

diagnosis

The diagnostic process to identify papillary renal cell carcinoma will include a physical exam, a thorough medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.

If your doctor suspects kidney cancer, they may start the diagnostic process by ordering imaging tests, such as:

  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Ultrasound

Laboratory tests used may include:

  • blood chemistry
  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
  • liver function test
  • Urinalysis
  • renal arteriography

Once the tumor is identified, your doctor will perform a biopsy by inserting a needle into the tumor and extracting cells under a microscope. This sample will show what type of kidney cancer you have.

Determine the spread

Tests used to determine spread or metastasis include:

  • bone scan
  • chest x-ray
  • chest CT scan
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan

What tests are performed to detect kidney cancer?

treat

Treatment for papillary renal cell carcinoma usually begins with surgery to remove part or all of the kidney. This procedure is called a nephrectomy. Surgery is the most common treatment option for early-stage kidney cancer.

Radiation therapy can then be recommended to kill cancer cells in the tumor area. Your doctor may recommend radiation therapy after surgery to make sure all cancer cells have been killed.

Adjuvant therapy is an additional treatment used after surgery to help kill the remaining cancer cells in the tumor area. Your doctor may recommend adjuvant therapy to help prevent the cancer from coming back.

Chemotherapy is not currently used to treat papillary renal cell carcinoma.

drug

The following drugs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of papillary renal cell carcinoma:

  • Nexavar (sorafenib): for advanced renal cell carcinoma
  • Proleukin (aldesleukin): Approved for adults over 18 with metastatic renal cell carcinoma
  • Torisel (temsirolimus): treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma
  • Keytruda (pembrolizumab): Approved as adjuvant therapy to prevent kidney cancer recurrence in some patients

What are the treatments for kidney cancer?

prognosis

The prognosis for papillary renal cell carcinoma is unique to each person and depends on how advanced the cancer is and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.

Type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma is considered to have a better prognosis than type 2. This is because type 2 cancer is a more aggressive type of cancer that can spread quickly.

Possible complications of papillary renal cell carcinoma include:

  • high blood pressure (high blood pressure)
  • High red blood cell count
  • high calcium levels in the blood
  • Liver and spleen problems
  • transfer

response

Once you learn you have cancer, finding a support network will be an important aspect of your treatment. Discuss options such as support groups or online communities with your healthcare team.

The following organizations may be able to help:

  • Action to Treat Kidney Cancer (ACKC): Education and support for people undergoing treatment for kidney cancer
  • Patient Access Network (PAN) Foundation: Additional Help for Low Income Patients with Health Insurance
  • Social Security Administration: Include papillary renal cell carcinoma in its compassionate benefit initiative to expedite disability claims
  • Aid Fund: Educational and Financial Assistance for People with Chronic Illnesses

Cancer Support Groups and Communities

generalize

Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that originates in small tubes in the kidney called renal tubules. Tumors appear as finger-like protrusions in tubules. Common symptoms include blood in the urine, pain and feeling like a lump on one side of the body. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is usually treated with surgery and possibly radiation therapy.

VigorTip words

Learning that you may have papillary renal cell carcinoma can be an overwhelming and scary experience. It may be helpful to remember to be helpful.

Seek immediate medical attention if you develop any new symptoms, such as blood in your urine or body pain. Early diagnosis is critical for the treatment of papillary renal cell carcinoma.

Once diagnosed, contact a support group or online community to get the support you and your loved ones need.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Is papillary renal cell carcinoma curable?

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is treatable, and the earlier it is detected, the better the prognosis. The five-year survival rate for localized kidney cancer that has not spread is 93 percent. The overall five-year survival rate was 75%.

  • Does papillary renal cell carcinoma require chemotherapy?

    No, chemotherapy is generally not recommended for this type of kidney cancer. Treatment usually includes surgery, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy drugs.

  • What are the signs of papillary renal cell carcinoma?

    Possible signs and symptoms of papillary renal cell carcinoma include:

    • blood in the urine
    • Low back pain (low back pain)
    • abdominal pain or swelling
    • unexpected weight loss
    • fatigue
    • fever
    • A lump on the side of the abdomen
    • Swollen veins around the testicles (varicoceles)
    • excessive hair growth in women
    • pale complexion
    • Vision change
    • liver changes
    • Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (blood test)